Sandaeroship is a multi modular gas, propulsion, energy and direction application aerosystem. Allows substantial economies of scale (mass production of standard product), economies of scope (dilution of fixed costs to multiple application products and services), economies of fuel (low cost/weight/speed altitude transition with full acceleration at lower drag/gravity altitude), economies of weight (ultra lite carbon and/or glass fiber, pressurized hot air and/or hydrogen/helium buoyancy, low fuel) and high performance (anywhere on Earth or to Space at high speed, maneuverability, reusability and fuel autonomy). Additional lift capacity over cube-diamond of pressurized hot air at 100 to 450 Celsius (Steam: 100% to 0%; helium:150% to 65%; hydrogen:275% to 80%; cube-sphere:+300%; cube:+600%).
SANDAEROSHIP
Sandaeroship 1 - Black Falcon

Modules of 10 to 100 meters cube structure side (diamond or sphere interior) for mono/multi modular passenger/cargo piloted aircraft, drones and satellites (modules 1 to 10 meter cube side with/without hot air/hydrogen/helium in diamond/sphere envelope; independent or connected to mother ship module; with passenger/cargo in diamond; 24 electric motor propellers on cube corners; 24 bio fuel rocket nozzles and/or 4 bio fuel rocket nozzles centered at cube/diamond/sphere). A rocket-only Black Falcon version would be a maneuverable six way propulsion mono or multi stage/module aircraft, with fuel in cubic structure and cargo/passengers in diamond/sphere, or placing the fuel also inside the diamond chamber with nozzles at points with cargo/passengers in diamond/sphere of separate attached modules (or upper half of diamond/sphere). All versions have lower cost and superior performance than current airplanes, helicopters and rockets.

1-Air-Gas-Vacuum:
pressurized hot/cold air/gas varying in altitude transition to 99% vacuum.

2-Solar-Wind:
solar film and wind turbine energy stored in batteries.

3-Propeller-Turbine:
double blades connected to motor and generator.

4-Motor-Generator
hybrid electric motor powered by batteries or generator.

5-Bio-Air-Gas
liquid air/gas, oxygen and algae bio fuel rocket and propellers.

6-Aero-Space:
flight to any altitude, including space.

7-Cube-Diamond:
equipment in cube and pressurized hot air in diamond or sphere.

8-Modular-Carbon:
carbon/glass/thermoplastic fabric block for mono/multi modular aircraft.

9-Multicopter-Rocket:
all cube face propellers and rocket nozzles.

10-Flap-Sail:
all side centered mirror flaps for lift/maneuver and eolic/photonic sail.

COMPONENTS

1-Propellers/turbines:
4 per side, 24 total, with double blades (giving or taking power from electric motor and generator), placed at cubic structure corners (allowing six way propulsion: up, down, left, right, front and back). Cubic structure cylinders hold fuel and battery. Estimation of lift capacity: 54,43kg per meter of blade; 20min per m3 of battery; 3.27 kg per minute of range; 3,32kg of lift per kg of energy (additional energy from bio fuel energy generator).

2-Rocket-nozzles:
4 per cube side, 24 total, with nozzles fed by propellant (liquid air and/or bio fuel) in cube corner cylinders, forming two horizontal way rocket nozzles on each corner (cross over on throat of nozzle) and vertical direction nozzles on center cylinder (allowing six way propulsion: up, down, left, right, front and back). Alternative rocket nozzles centered on diamond point to achieve better stability/synchrony of rocket nozzles. Optional additional ion thrusters, placed on diamond 4 points (magnetized/polarized air plasma in smaller diamond point chamber produce propulsion from electrons driven out of nozzle) for high altitude or space slow continuous acceleration with low fuel consumption and unlimited speed. Estimation of rocket lift capacity: 1,73 ton per m3 of fuel.

3-Carbon/glass/thermoplastic fabric inflated cubic structure:
12 cylinders with 0.2 meter diameter (0.1 radius) forming a cubic structure with additional 4 center cylinders to support the diamond envelope (16, 28, 40, 52 cylinder units for the 10, 20, 50, 100 m cubes respectively). Made of carbon and/or glass fiber fabric 2/2 (weight: 0.222 + 0.111 epoxy/resin = 0,333 kg/m2; cost: US$15 m2 wholesale/manufacturer) and Solar Film (weight: 55g m2; 20% conversion efficiency; cost: US$0.5/watt, US$100/m2, 200W/m2, -20% and -50% for wholesale and manufacturer prices). Cubic cylindric structure area/volume: A=(2 pi r h + 2 pi r2).n; V=(pi r2 h).n (n=number of cylinders, h= height, r=radius, pi=3.14, A=area, V=volume). Rolled up rectangular carbon fabric sewn in center to form cylinder (or fabricated in tube format); sewn to other cylinders and diamond (made from rectangular fabric sewn in triangular faces to form opposing pyramids); inflated with air; hardening/flexible and water/air/heat insulation sealant resin/epoxy added to form mono block.

4-Carbon/glass/thermoplastic fiber and solar film diamond (or sphere):
Diamond air/wind piercing points, connected to the center of cubic structure, with solar film covering the top half of diamond. Doubling cube side increases diamond area by 4 and volume by 8 (buoyancy lift increases by 8). Diamond base/volume/area: b2= a2+c2 (a and c=1/2 of cube side); V= (b2.h/3).2 (h=1/2 diamond height); A=(2bh+b2).2. Buoyancy force (Newtons) = (air density - gas density kg/m3).gravity(9.91 m/s2 or N/kg).volume(m3). air density 1.29 kg/m3; hydrogen 0.09; helium 0.18; 450Celsius air 0.49, CO2 1.97.

5-Air/gas heater/cooler of electric wires, gas tubes and halogen lamps:
Halogen lamps (long lasting regenerative filament material) producing high heat (up to 450 Celsius) are fixated on aircraft diamond internal structure, gas tubes, electric wires and air/gas pumps.

6-Energy battery:
Lithium-ion battery or alternative technology with carbon fiber casing inside cubic structure of aircraft; stores energy from solar film, wind turbines, liquid air and bio fuel generator; 20 min range per m3 of battery; 3.265 kg per minute of range; 3,32kg of lift per kg of energy.

7-Air/gas compressor:
Ai/gas compressor inside cubic structure of aircraft; stores energy in liquid air/gas that can be used for buoyancy/ballast in diamond structure (hot/cold air/gas changes the temperature of interior gas to go up or down); generator, rocket and propeller propulsion.

8-Liquid air/gas, oxygen and algae bio fuel storage:
Storage in cubic structure connected to rocket nozzles and to electric generator. Cold air/gas can also quickly cool hot air/gas in diamond to generate descent and internal pressure, in accordance with external altitude/pressure.

9-Electric generator:
Placed in cubic structure of the aircraft, fueled by liquid air and/or algae bio fuel, helps power propellers, air pump/compressor and halogen lamps. Surplus energy can be stored in batteries or transmitted via laser.

10-Air/gas/vacuum pump:
Placed in diamond structure of aircraft, connecting exterior/tank to interior tube/coil structure, allowing to push/pull air/gas in/out to create pressurized hot air/gas buoyancy, depending on the outside pressure correlated to altitude, generating a sustainable density differential for movement or weight reduction.

11-Laser and microwave dishes:
Placed cubic structure; allows communication, navigation and energy reception/transmission. Laser has higher efficiency, unless impaired by low atmosphere weather (rain fade), in this case alternative laser paths, microwave or cable (parked/anchored module above/outside weather) can reroute transmission.

12-Passenger/cargo smaller diamond or bigger cubic modules:
Placed on cubic structure, pressurized smaller diamond modules minimize air drag and may be ejected from cubic structure, carrying ballistic parachute, internal/external airbags and retrorockets. Alternatively, a bigger cubic cargo and/or passenger module (non-propulsive or rocket propulsive) can be used in a multi modular aircraft.

13-Mechanic/magnetic/electronic/vacuum latch multi modular connections:
Multi module aircraft can be connected on the ground or in air at the cube sides in different configurations such as pyramid, diamond and square. Configurations can also be dismantled in air for security reasons, multi stage rocket ascension and/or multi destination.

14-Air/gas/vacuum pumps, gas tubes, electric wires and halogen lamps:
Diamond internal tube structure holds halogen lamps and air/gas pump/suction ducts, to produce pressurized hot air/gas lift when ascending and ballast/brake when descending.

15- Water, bio fuel, hydrogen and oxygen production/storage:
Transparent solar compartment of water with algae also stores bio fuel produced directly by low cost refining process. Water hydrolysis can produce oxygen and hydrogen as alternative rocket/generator fuel and for breathing in pressurized passenger module. Algae also used for food and carbon material production.

OPERATION

1-Pressurized hot air/gas (hydrogen/helium) buoyancy propulsion :
air/gas fills diamond; halogen lamp heater raises temperature; air/gas gradually evacuated in proportion with altitude and temperature (100 to 450 Celsius), maintaining density differential and sustainable internal pressure; pressurized hot air rises from 60% to 99% vacuum equivalent, as aircraft ascends, until external low air pressure altitude (30-40 km), while significant air density differential still exists (until 300-400 km) (see charts). Internal hot air/gas pressure rises, as aircraft descends and external pressure increases, while keeping density differential to help brake descent as the air is also gradually cooled down to the ground. Pressurized hot air/gas lift (volume/weight of air displaced) triples as cube/diamond side (area) doubles and decreases as air density declines. Pressurized hot air lift at ground level: 60% of vacuum equivalent with density differential between internal air (450Celsius/0.49kg/m3) and external air (20Celsius/1.204kg/m3) (additional lift capacity: helium:+40%; hydrogen:+50%; cube-sphere:+300%; cube:+600%).

2-Propeller propulsion:

Air flows through corner wind tunnels of all six sides of cube allowing for instantaneous multi directional maneuvering. All side propulsion can create a wind barrier or flow to lower air drag for combined micro rocket propulsion. Propeller propulsion declines with decline in air density as altitude increases and is replaced by rocket propulsion. Diamond and propellers give most of the propulsion from 0 to 10Km, declining substantially after 10km, with little significance after 50km.

3-Rocket propulsion:
Can add acceleration under 50km when diamond and propeller lift overcome weight and air drag, or give full acceleration after 50km when air drag is minimized. Between 100 to 200 km aircraft can reach a zero vertical velocity with weight sustained by bottom rocket lift to then apply side rocket horizontal impulse at low air drag to reach orbital/escape velocity, to reach any Earth destination under 2 hours at 10 to 20 Mach (12-24.000km/h), or carry on acceleration to direct gravity escape velocity to higher altitudes including outer space. Aircraft can be mono/multi module/stage to guarantee enough propulsion and fuel for these objectives, although less fuel consumption is expected than a traditional rocket because of lower propulsion, weight and air drag.

4-Energy production:
Solar film, wind turbines (propellers not in use, with double face connection, are released from motor connection and engaged into generator connection), algae bio fuel and liquid air generator can produce electricity consumed, stored in batteries or as compressed liquid air or transmitted via laser/microwave. Algae bio fuel can be produced on board with solar energy, water and CO2 (1 acre/4046.86 m2 of algae can produce 8,000 gallons/15319 liters of liquid fuels).

5-Passenger and/or cargo:

Pressurized smaller diamonds are placed next to main diamond with possibility of ejection, with ballistic parachutes, heat shield, retro rockets and air bags. Alternatively, pressurized independent exclusive passenger and/or cargo modules (partial propulsive or non-propulsive), with or without diamond (cargo/passengers placed outside or inside diamond), can be combined with exclusive propulsive modules to form multi modular aircraft. When removing central diamond for more space, there will be less pressurized hot air (hydrogen/helium) lift and need for more propulsion modules.

6-Trajectory:
Two points on Earth can be connected by vertical/horizontal-orbital/vertical trajectory with high speed at the low air resistance horizontal-orbital segment. Trajectory to outer space may be fully vertical with heavier load of fuel, or vertical followed by horizontal spiral orbit to generate centrifuge counter gravitational escape speed with lower load of fuel.

7-Velocity:

Depends on lift/thrust (propellers, buoyant diamond, rockets) versus weight/drag (equipment, passengers, cargo and altitude variables: temperature, air density, pressure, gravity, humidity). The aircraft arriving at 100-400km altitude to zero velocity, will then generate perpendicular horizontal side rocket-acceleration to enter orbit speed, with weight still sustained by vertical rockets. Direct escape velocity is also possible with early acceleration at low weight high drag point and/or high weight low drag point, reaching also 10 to 20 Mach (12000 and 24000km/hr). Continuous acceleration in space can be obtained with on board fuel production capacity and/or use of low fuel small but continuous thrust from ion propulsion.

MODULE COST AND PERFORMANCE

(0.333 kg/m2 2/2 carbon and/or glass fiber + resin:
US$15m2 wholesale/manufacturer price)

Sandaeroship 1 (Black Falcon)

Mono/Multi Modules: 10 to 100 meter cube side.

Cube Structure Side: 10; 20; 50; 100 m.
Cube Structure Cylinders: 16, 28, 40, 52 units.
Cube Structure Area: 88.80; 328.19; 1195.59; 3143.15 m2.
Cube Structure Volume: 4.4; 16.33; 59.66; 157.00 m3.
Cube Structure Weight: 29.57; 109.29; 398.13; 1046.67 kg.

Diamond Area: 173.17; 692,68; 4330.88; 17323,52 m2.
Diamond Volume: 166.66; 1333.34; 20833.33; 166666.68m3.
Diamond Weight: 57.67; 230.66; 1442.18; 5768.73 kg.
Diamond Lift: 133; 1067; 16672; 133376 kg
(Ground Air at 25 Celsius/1.2g/m3; Hot Air at 450 Celsius/0.49kg/m3).
Propeller Size: 2.5; 5; 12.5; 25 m (4 per way/side).

Diamond Lift : 133; 1855; 16672; 133376 kg
Propeller Lift: 1089; 2177; 5443; 10886 kg.
Total Lift (D+P): 1222; 4032; 22115; 144262 kg.

Rocket Lift: 2000; 5000; 40000; 300000 kg.
(exceed full capacity D+P lift after 50 km.)

Cube Structure Weight: 29.57; 109.29; 398.13; 1046.67 kg.
Diamond Weight: 57.67; 230.66; 1442.18; 5768.73 kg.
Solar Film Weight: 10.53; 42.11; 263.23; 526.46 kg.
Equipment Weight: 236.01; 698.58; 7320.88; 24819.65 kg.
Fuel Weight: 166.22; 419.36; 5575.58; 17838.49 kg.
Total Weight: 500; 1500; 15000; 50000 kg.

Cargo: 250; 750; 7500; 25000 kg.
Passengers/crew: 4; 10; 100; 300.
Total: 500 ; 1500; 15000; 50000 kg.
(unlimited cargo/passenger/range with specialized multi module aircraft configurations).

Diamond/Cube Cost: US$ 5312; 21248; 182880; 531520.
Equipment Cost: US$ 7726; 15637; 383235; 772326.
Total Cost: US$ 13038; 36885; 566115; 1303846.
Module Price: US$ 19950; 59950; 795950; 1995950.
(1 seat fractional property: US$995 + US$95 month maintenance)
(Graphene with one layer of carbon atoms weighs 0.77mg/m2 and 1000 layers can form a network of less than 1g/m2 or less than 100g/m2 with resin, versus 300g/m2 of carbon/glass fiber with resin. Cost/price/weight can be divided by at least 3 using Graphene).
SANDAEROSHIP 1
BLACK FALCON
Cube: Propellers/turbines on corners.
Diamond: gas/lamps/tubes/wires.
Multiway: 6 side propulsion.
Cube: equipment/storage.
Diamond: pressurized hot air.
Multiway: 6 side propulsion.
99% VACUUM IN SANDAEROSHIP
60% VACUUM IN SANDAEROSHIP
99% VACUUM IN SANDAEROSHIP
60% VACUUM IN SANDAEROSHIP
BUOYANCY REDUCED
WITH DROP IN AIR DENSITY
AND REPLACED BY
ROCKET PROPULSION
PASSENGER AND/OR CARGO INDEPENDENT NON-PROPULSIVE MODULES WITH OR WITHOUT DIAMOND
10 to 100
meters
Multi level
Interior
Added
Multi Modular
Connections

Remove Diamond for more space but less lift and need for more propulsion modules
GRAVITY DECLINE WITH
INCREASE IN ALTITUDE
Altitude
Propulsion
Transition
0km
10km
200km
100km
1km
50km
Buoyancy
Propellers
Zero Weight
Rocket
Early
Boost
Buoyancy
Propellers
Decline
Rocket
Main Lift
99% Vacuum
Rocket
Late
Boost
Orbital
Escape
Velocity
Less Weight
More Drag
More Weight
Less Drag
Space
10 to 20
Mach
Single or Multi Modular
Single or Multi Stage
100%
Reusable
Multi
Directional
Rockets
Alternative use of diamond for cargo and/or passegers
Sandaerocopters/Sandaerockets with configuration of 6 full side propellers and rocket nozzles centered in the cube that can be attached on the inside and/or outside corners/centers of larger Sandaerocopters, Sandaerockets or Sandaeroships.
Sandaeroship modular Cube-Diamond and/or Cube-Sphere configuration with all corner propellers and 100 to 450 Celsius pressurized halogen lamp hot air (additional lift capacity: steam: 100% to 0%; helium:150% to 65%; hydrogen:275% to 80%; cube-sphere:+300%; cube:+600%).